I'm replying to this old post as it may help somebody else.
I have had this problem on and off for years with my MF8580CDW. Usually I use compatible cartridges but for the past year my printer has had correction issues with one out of two cartridges so I ended up installing original Canon cartridges. Worked fine for a few months and then same issue has cropped up again.
I tried swapping cartridges (I have onet of original and one of compatible) in various combinations without any luck. While searching on the internet I came accross the service manual. The correction feature reads the alignment signal from the "colour displacement/density signal" sensors. This is the bar in front of the machine just under the toner cartridge tray. With the black toner cartridge removed and the tray slightly pulled out it is possible to see sevaral square or rectangular holes in the plastic cover which is held by 2 screws. In four of those holes (2 on each side) there are small black round sensors. I first gave them a swipe with a small paintbrush without success, I then cleaned them with some alcohol on a cotton bud and hey presto the alignment worked again.
It is relatively simple fix. I do not know why it is not recommended to clean these sensors from time to time. I hope this info will save a few printers from being junked. I was getting close to that point after having spent all morning trying to solve the isssue.